There is nothing more impressive on a physique then a set of well developed wheels. However, all too often do I see a inequality between weightlifters quadriceps and hamstring development. Not only is this an issue from an aesthetic standpoint, but also from a functional standpoint. Large disparities in hamstring and quadriceps development and/or strength can lead to a host of issues leading to increased risk of injury of the knees, hips, and low back. On the athletic front, most of the well-gifted clients I work with have become quad dominant, amazing accelerating specimens, however they lack the same ability to decelerate and brake with the hamstrings and glutes. When I start to focus more on these athletes hamstring strength they begin to see better performance on the field and less time off of it.
The hamstrings are made up of three main muscles; the semitendinosus, semimembranosus, and biceps femoris (See figure 1). The former two muscles, along with the long head of the biceps femoris both extend the hip (act to move the leg backwards) and flex the knee (actively bend the knee). The short head of the biceps femoris does not cross the hip joint and thus only flexes the knee. In regards to the fiber type of the hamstrings group Type II/Fast Twitch fibers predominate, and because of this higher intensity exercise should make up your hamstring routine (Garrett 1984).
There are a couple angles we can take in regards to hamstring development; aesthetic and strength. Visually it is much more subjective to determine the state of your hamstrings, and thus one would be best served to have their physique judged by a professional trainer, coach, or judge well-versed in the competitive physique industry. When it comes to strength we can substantiate things quite a bit more objectively. The strength of your hamstrings should be roughly 2/3 the strength of your quadriceps. You may be thinking, that's great but how in the world do I assess that? Charles Poliquin, a renowned strength training mind, suggests that if your front squat is less than 85% of your back squat an imbalance exists (Poliquin 2010).
When programming exercise it is always important to take a holistic approach, meaning you should account for all variables in your overall program. That encompasses your workout split, rest and recovery, priority of muscles worked, and of course the goals you hope to accomplish from your program. However, in this article we will focus strictly on the training it will take to bring up your hamstring strength, size, and detail. Remember that the hamstrings groups both extend the hip and flex the knee, so the exercises in our "Holy Hamstrings" program should account for that. Also, as aforementioned, the hamstrings groups respond best to higher intensity exercise, and accordingly the loads we choose should be sufficient enough to allow for only 6-8 reps, 12 at most, so long as good technique is maintained. Below are a couple recommended workouts depending the angle at which you want to attack your hamstrings.
Muscle development workout | Power development
|1A||Good Mornings (extend||6-8||3-4||1||Romanian Deadlift (extend)||6-8||4-5|
|1B||Glute Ham Raises (flex)||8-10||3-4||2||Glute Ham Raise (flex)||6-8||4-5|
|2A||Stiff-Legged Deadlifts (extend)||8||3|
|2B||Lying Leg Curl (flex)||8-12||3|
As you can see there are different exercises, rep/set schemes, and overall volume for the two emphasis. For a better idea of how to incorporate these exercises into a comprehensive leg program check out Ian Lauer's article Your Physique is More Than a Torso. Train Your Legs!. Now you have no excuse for a lagging backside, of your legs that is. Whether you want to excel on the playing field, bring a better physique to the stage, or sport a stronger pair of lower limbs, it's important to prioritize your hamstring training.
Written by Adam Bisek